Make Your Last Words Count
In academic writing, a well-crafted conclusion can provide the final word on the value of your analysis, research, or paper. Complete your conclusions with conviction!
Conclusions show readers the value of your completely developed argument or thoroughly answered question. Consider the conclusion from the reader's perspective. At the end of a paper, a reader wants to know how to benefit from the work you accomplished in your paper. Here are ways to think about the purpose of a conclusion:
- To connect the paper's findings to a larger context, such as the wider conversation about an issue as it is presented in a course or in other published writing.
- To suggest the implications of your findings or the importance of the topic.
- To ask questions or suggest ideas for further research.
- To revisit your main idea or research question with new insight.
Should you summarize?
Consider what readers can keep track of in their heads. If your paper is long or complex, some summary of your key points will remind readers of the ground you've covered. If your paper is short, your readers may not need a summary. In any paper, you'll want to push beyond mere summary to suggest the implications or applications of your work.
How do you start drafting a conclusion?
Effective conclusions take the paper beyond summary and demonstrate a further appreciation of the paper's argument and its significance: why it works, why it is meaningful, and why it is valuable. To get started, you might ask yourself these questions:
- How do the ideas in your paper connect to what you have discussed in class, or to what scholars have written in their treatment of your topic?
- What new ideas have you added to the conversation? What ideas do you critique?
- What are the limitations of your data, methods, or results?
- What are the consequences of the strongest idea that comes out of your paper?
- How can you return to the question or situation you describe in your introduction?
From Mounting methodologies to measure EUV reticle nonflatness (SPIE Proceedings 7470, 2009), by UW–Madison Professor Roxanne L. Engelstad's lab. Notice how Battula et al. explain the limitations of their findings, and identify specific future developments that would make their proposal more accurately testable.
The horizontal whiffle tree mount should have performed the best considering the kinematics of the 16 support points, as well as theoretically displaying the least amount of gravitational distortions. However, due to possible friction at the pivoted joints and the current tolerances on the whiffle tree system, there were difficulties in using this mount. At this time, the process of averaging the measurements taken at four vertical orientations appears to be the best approach.
Gender and Women's Studies
From Examining Millie and Christine McKoy: Where Enslavement and Enfreakment Meet (Signs 37, 2011), by UW–Madison Professor Ellen Samuels. Notice how Samuels's conclusion briefly summarizes her article's main claims before turning to the consequences of her strongest claims.
While there are still many questions left unanswered about the McKoys, and many possible truths to be drawn from their lives, I have aimed in this article to establish that at least two things are not true: the tale of the beneficent and beloved slaveowners and the resigned, downcast expression on Millie's face in the altered picture. Moreover, I contend that turning away from historical legacies as complex and dangerous as those of enslavement and enfreakment keeps us from being able to understand them and to imagine different futures. We need to develop paradigms of analysis that allow us to perceive and interpret both the radical empowerment of the McKoys' lives and the oppressions that are no less fundamental to their story. Such an analysis must allow for dissonance, contradictions, and even discomfort in its gaze. Only then can we move forward with the work of shaping new representations and new possibilities for extraordinary bodily experience.
From UW–Madison Law Professor Andrew B. Coan's Judicial Capacity and the Substance of Constitutional Law (2012). Notice how this conclusion emphasizes the significance of the topic under consideration.
Judicial capacity has been too long misunderstood and too long neglected. It is a central institutional characteristic of the judiciary, which has significant predictive power in important constitutional domains and also significant normative implications. It deserves consideration from constitutional theorists on par with that accorded to judicial competence and judicial independence. Indeed, it is crucial to a full understanding of both of these much-discussed institutional features of the judiciary.
How To Write A Conclusion For A Research Paper
The purpose and content of the research paper is summarized in the conclusion. It must be done with finesse so that it doesn’t come across as boring, dry or repetitive. In general, conclusions share several major elements. If you know the right strategies, you can use them to craft a very effective conclusion. You should also know the downfalls which could weaken your research paper’s conclusion and ultimately sink it.
Writing tips for conclusions
- It is crucial to restate the topic, even only briefly to remind the reader why it is important. This should not take up a large amount of time or space.
- Restating your thesis is the next essential element. The thesis is an exact, precise view of the topic. Use different words so that it is not an exact replica of the sentence you used in the introduction.
- Give a brief summary of the main points. In essence, you are reminding the reader what you just told them in the body of your research paper. You could slightly re-word the topic sentence of each of the major paragraphs of the paper. Supporting details do not need to be repeated. Information that is vital to your argument should never be presented for the first time in the conclusion.
- Show the reader how everything adds up. In other words give the reader a sense of why all your points are significant.
- If a call to action is warranted, it can be done in the conclusion. Not all research papers would need this step; for example a critical essay on a piece of literature would not need this step, but a research paper on the effects of video games on teenagers might effectively use a call to action.
Strategies for more effective conclusions
Use some of the following tactics to inject some potency into your conclusion:
- Synthesize the information. This is similar to the presentation you made in the introduction, but it repeats it using different words to cement the idea into the reader’s mind and make a final strong and memorable statement.
- Speculation. This is effective for papers that don’t have an obvious answer. This can be used to sway the reader’s opinion, or show how your own opinion has been swayed. Don’t be afraid to indicate that further research is required to shed more light on the yet unanswered questions.
- Pose a question instead of handing the reader the answer on a silver platter. This strategy demands the reader to formulate their own conclusion.