Referencing in your UTAS assignments
Step 1. Before you use this library guide check: Does your School have its own referencing guide? To find out ask your lecturer or tutor.
Step 2. If you are using this guide or another guide and you are still unsure about a particular citation, it is always best to check with your tutor or lecturer - they will be marking your work after all.
Step 3. Refer to the Style Manual. UTAS Library holds print Style Manuals (complete guides) for the following referencing styles: Harvard, APA, MLA, Chicago, Vancouver & Turabian. You can find these manuals on the shelves in UTAS Library branches. To locate these books please refer to the other pages in this guide.
Step 4. If you have followed steps 1 - 3 and you still need referencing help contact staff in Student Learning, or ask at a library enquiries desk, or fill in this web form: Ask a Librarian
In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author:
First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015)
Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote: (include page number)
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)